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SIF – ALDEF Post Distribution Monitoring Report [ Eid UL Adha Project ] Wajir Aug-Sep 2017

SIF – ALDEF Post Distribution Monitoring Report [ Eid UL Adha Project ] Wajir Aug-Sep 2017

Drought situation in Wajir County is currently classified as stressed (phase 2) but some parts are classified as Crisis (phase3). Majority of the household have minimal adequate food consumption and are unable to afford some essential food commodities. The areas that are classified as crisis (phase 3) include: parts of pastoral all species in Wajir West Sub County and pastoral cattle in Wajir South Sub County. These areas are the most affected parts of the County which experienced depressed rainfall in the current and previous seasons that led to poor pasture, browse and water, However due to the migration to other thought better off sub-counties and overcrowding of livestock and people the little available has been depleted fast.

In partnership with ALDEF, SIF and Karama Charity supported a Food voucher one off Ramadan assistance to 1070 households in 16 per urban villages within Wajir town in June-July 2017 and slaughter of 636 goats and sheep. This is follow on SIF funded one month Eid ul Adha sacrifice project Aug-Sept 2017. The projects had to sets of criteria to select beneficiaries;

The purpose of this monitoring activity was to look at the process of eid ul Adha project, targeting, destocking, slaughtering and use delivery mechanism, and other key issues experienced by the beneficiaries. The post-distribution monitoring process administered tools to collect data on household demographics, targeting, destocking and Eid ul Adha meat slaughtering, distribution and uses of meat and cash revived by pastoralist who sold livestock, complain mechanism, satisfaction levels with the project; i.e. 280 household questionnaires, focus Group discussion with beneficiaries at 3 villages (20% of the villages), 3 Key Informant interviews (will elders, traders, veterinary and public departments).

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ASAL Humanitarian Network Drought Emergency Response in Kenya, 2021

ASAL Humanitarian Network Drought Emergency Response in Kenya, 2021

The ASAL Humanitarian Network is a platform led by local and national NGOs promoting a humanitarian system that enables more locally-led responses. Its current 30 members are all operational within the Arid and Semi-Arid Land (ASAL) counties in Northern Kenya. They have a wide array of expertise, including food security and livelihoods, cash transfer programming, WASH, media and advocacy and community engagement. As a network, member organizations complement and add value to each other’s programmes and have invested in structures that cover the breadth of the ASAL counties that can be used for rapid and timely delivery of interventions, whilst coming together with a collective voice against injustice.

AHN and its INGO partners are fundraising for an overall proposal with a target of USD 12 million to cover 20,830 households in 10 counties (5 cycles especially for eastern flank of the country) WASH, Gender and Protection and Multipurpose Cash Transfer (MPCT) at 50% Minimum Expenditure Budget of Kes 7,965 + Kes 134 transaction costs in accordance to the cash working group rate for IPC3+ in crisis populations. Drought emergency response has started in Isiolo, Marsabit, and pipeline for Turkana, Samburu, Wajir, Garissa, Mandera, and Tana River counties.

For further information and requests, please contact:

Ahmed Ibrahim – ALDEF CEO and Convener of ASAL Humanitarian Network, ahmed.ibrahim@aldef.org

Michelle Van Den Berg – Strategic Coordinator, michelle.van.den.berg@aldef.org

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One in ten Kenyans face crisis levels of food insecurity – Joint statement by the ASAL Humanitarian Network

One in ten Kenyans face crisis levels of food insecurity – Joint statement by the ASAL Humanitarian Network

In March 2021, over1.4 million individuals (equivalent to 10% of the analyzed population in the ASAL areas) faced high levels of acute food insecurity(Integrated Phase Classification 3 and above)and were in need of urgent action. 412,066 children between 6 and 59 months old and 98,759 pregnant and lactating women were also estimated to be malnourished and in need of treatment1.

Forecasts suggest another below-average rainy season starting in March 2021. Should this poor rainy season materialize, sharp food security deteriorations beyond the current 1.4 million food insecure people are likely.

These shocking figures should not be considered business as usual. Immediate anticipatory action is required to prevent further deterioration in pockets of severe malnutrition and food insecurity. The underperformance of the October to December short rains meant that pasture availability was poor and crop harvests were below average in many marginal agricultural areas. Livestock diseases are also anticipated to increase if animals are forced to migrate further should the next rainy season fail. Desert locust swarms
re-invaded Kenya in December 2020, further impacting farmers and agro-pastoral households. The desert locust infestation has been the worst in 70 years, affecting up to 29 counties during the peak of the crisis.

19 cases, and WHO statistics show that the current wave is the fastest growing that the country has faced since the beginning of the pandemic2. By March 22, 2021, positivity rates increased to 19 percent compared to 2.6 percent in January of the same year. A steep increase in the number of hospital admissions related to COVID-19 has also been witnessed, with a reported increase of 52 percent in 13 days during the second half of March3; putting a strain on an already fragile health care system. On top of that, households are
facing restricted access to health and nutrition services due to the pandemic, a slowdown in trade, and losses of incomes and livelihoods due to restrictions put in place to control the spread of the virus.

A recent assessment conducted by members of the ASAL Humanitarian Network supported by ACTED, Oxfam, and Concern Worldwide highlighted that drought conditions and lack of rains have placed a strain on water assets, water access, and livelihoods4. As of March 2021, 814 water trucking sites were reported across Turkana, Wajir, Mandera, Marsabit, Garissa, Samburu, Isiolo, and Tana River.

Drought puts persistent strain on pastoral livelihoods, undermining household resilience, income and food security, and access to water. Similarly, agricultural activities were also reported to have been adversely affected by drought and desert locust infestations. This is further compounded by the predicted below-normal long seasonal rains between March and May 2021 in most of the ASAL counties.

Kenya is witnessing an increase in the recurrence and severity of climatic shocks, including flooding, droughts and desert locust infestations. Without county authorities allocating resources for preparedness and addressing the strengthening of communities’ resilience, these crises will have a devastating impact on the ability of households to respond to future ones.

These compounded crises will thus lead to increased vulnerability of pastoralist and agro-pastoralist communities across the ASAL counties of Kenya. It is imperative that county authorities and the national government invest in preparedness and that early action is initiated to safeguard the livelihoods and food security of hundreds of thousands of vulnerable households. The ASAL Humanitarian Network advocates for the humanitarian donors and agencies to develop contingency planning and mobilize resources for the
affected areas of Kenya in support of the local authorities and the Government of Kenya’s efforts.

For further information and requests, please contact:

Ahmed Ibrahim / ALDEF CEO and Convener of ASAL Humanitarian Network, ahmed.ibrahim@aldef.org

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ASAL Humanitarian Network, Drought Needs Assessment, July 2021

ASAL Humanitarian Network, Drought Needs Assessment, July 2021

The ASAL Humanitarian Network is a platform led by local and national NGOs promoting a humanitarian system that enables more locally-led responses. Its current 30 members are all operational within the Arid and Semi-Arid Land (ASAL) counties in Northern Kenya. They have a wide array of expertise, including food security and livelihoods, cash transfer programming, WASH, media and advocacy and community engagement. As a network, member organizations complement and add value to each other’s programmes and have invested in structures that cover the breadth of the ASAL counties that can be used for rapid and timely delivery of interventions, whilst coming together with a collective voice against injustice.

Following the below average rainfall during the March to May long rains, most counties in Northern and Eastern Kenya are on alert with the worsening drought trend. In this context, ASAL Humanitarian Network, with the technical support from ACTED, conducted a Drought Needs Assessment between 13th – 15th July 2021 covering 9 ASAL counties namely, Baringo, Garissa, Isiolo, Mandera, Marsabit, Samburu, Tana River, Turkana, and Wajir counties. Overall, the assessment covered 21 sub-counties, yielding a total of 113 Key informant Interviews (KIIs).

This needs assessment is meant to be read alongside the NDMA Long Rains Assessment, to complement its findings and provide a snapshot on the current situation.

To gather a holistic image of the current situation, KIIs were captured at three levels. County-level, sub-county level and community level. One (1) county-level National Drought Management Authority (NDMA) officer representative was collected per county.

At the sub-county level, 5 key informants were gathered per sub-county: 1 water department representative, 1 public health department representative, 1 administrator’s office representative, and 2 community-level representatives (1 female and 1 male).

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Kenya Drought Flash Appeal – Oct – Dec 2021 (September 2021)

Kenya Drought Flash Appeal - Oct - Dec 2021 (September 2021)

The cumulative impact of two consecutive poor rainy seasons, coupled with the COVID-19 pandemic, insecurity, pests and diseases have caused humanitarian needs to rapidly rise in the Arid and Semi-Arad Lands (ASAL) region of Kenya, leading to the declaration of a national disaster by the President of Kenya on 8 September 2021. Both the 2020 short rains (October to December) and the 2021 long rains (March to May) were poor across the ASAL counties. The two rainy seasons were characterized by late onset rainfall in most counties, as well as poor distribution of rainfall in time and space. In addition, forecasts indicate that the upcoming short rains season (October to December 2021) is likely to be below-average, compounded by the negative Indian Ocean Dipole

There are now at least 2.1 million people who are severely food insecure and adopting irreversible coping strategies to meet their minimum food needs, and this is expected to rise to nearly 2.4 million people from November 2021, according to the latest Integrated Phase Classification (IPC) analysis. This will include an estimated 368,000 people in Emergency (IPC Phase 4) and 2 million people in Crisis (IPC Phase 3), and is nearly three times (852,000) the number of people who were facing high acute food insecurity from October to December 2020. Nine counties are expected to have the highest numbers of people in IPC Phase 3 and above from November 2021 onwards: Turkana, Mandera, Lamu, Garissa, Wajir, Kwale, Kitui, Tana River and Isiolo. Food insecurity is expected to worsen in the period ahead based on the likelihood of poor rains during the upcoming short rains season (October to December).

Livelihoods have been severely impacted by the multiple shocks that communities have endured over the past year. The 2021 long rains production in the marginal areas is expected to be 42 to 70 per cent below the long-term average (LTA) for maize, 61 to 89 per cent below LTA for green grams and 58 to 86 per cent below LTA for cowpeas. For farming households, below-average harvests result in reduced household income, making it difficult for families to purchase food as household food stocks decline. Household maize stocks are 31 to 54 percent below the five-year average in most marginal agricultural areas, with maize stocks projected to last one to two months compared to three or four months normally, according to the 2021 Long Rains Assessment, led by the National Drought Management Agency (NDMA). In pastoral areas, below- average rangeland regeneration has negatively impacted livestock production, resulting in below-average milk production and consumption and high staple food prices. Milk production ranges from 0.25 to 3 litres per household per day compared to the normal 2 to 6 litres. Likewise, daily household milk consumption ranges from 0.25 to 1.6 litres per household per day compared to the average 1 to 3 litres.

Access to water is an urgent concern for both humans and livestock. Many open water sources -including rivers, water pans, and dams- have dried up across pastoral and marginal agricultural livelihood zones, and other open water sources at 20 to 40 percent of capacity. Eighty-seven per cent of counties report above-average distances to water sources for households and 78 per cent report above-average distances to water for livestock, according to the latest NDMA monitoring. Household trekking distances to watering points have increased to an average of 2 to 6 kilometers, up from the five-year average of 1 to 5 kilometers. Across most pastoral areas, livestock return trekking distances have also increased: in Marsabit, trekking distances are exceptionally high at 25 to 30 kilometers, compared to 15 to 20 kilometers normally; in Wajir, livestock trekking distances range from 15 to 20 km, around 3 to 4 times the normal distance of 5 kilometers.

With pastoralists having to walk longer distances in search of water, food and forage for their livestock, tensions among communities have risen and an increase in inter-communal conflict has been reported, according to an assessment by the ASAL Humanitarian Network. Atypical livestock migration is expected to intensify from September through October 2021 and from December 2021 until the beginning of the 2022 March to May long rains, according to the latest IPC analysis. As rangeland resources deteriorate rapidly in the period ahead, migration to dry-season grazing areas and other atypical routes are expected to further intensify, potentially increasing the incidence of resource-based conflict and disrupting markets, schooling, livelihoods and access to health facilities and services

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Kenyan ASAL counties face a looming disaster as drought intensifies

Joint statement by the ASAL Humanitarian Network

Following yet another below-average long rain season between March and May 2021, food security in the Arid and Semi-Arid Land (ASAL) counties in Kenya is deteriorating quickly. This is an alarming situation at the onset of the dry season, with over 2 million people already experiencing food insecurity (IPC 3 and 4) and numbers are expected to continue rising. Immediate action is required to prevent further deterioration of food security and nutrition.

The underperformance of the long rains means that pasture and browse conditions are below average for this time of year. The below-average conditions of pasture and browse have already affected the condition of livestock – and their condition is likely to worsen due to increasing distances to water and pasture and an anticipated increase in livestock diseases and livestock deaths. Distance to water sources has increased already to about 40% further than the June average, the recharge of open water sources is already at 30-45% below average and the cost of water in the pastoral livelihood zones has increased by 40%. Tensions and conflict over limited access to resources are increasing as pastoralist communities are moving in search of water and pasture, both within the traditionally negotiated areas or outside of these locations.

The below-average rain season has come at a challenging time where farmers and agro-pastoral households are still recovering from the damage caused by the desert locust invasions, especially in northern pastoral areas.

The COVID-19 pandemic has further exacerbated the situation by restricting access to health and nutrition services, a slowdown in trade and losses of income and livelihoods due to measures put in place to control the spread of the virus. Between March and April 2021, Kenya came through a third wave, which was the fastest growing and the highest in number of people infected since the beginning of the pandemic. However, since the beginning of June, the COVID-19 positivity rates have started increasing again and a fourth wave of increased COVID infections is looming.

The locust, COVID-19 and drought crises come at a time when Kenya is grappling with a growing debt and fiscal crisis. While the Government continues to seek more loans to fulfil its short- and long-term commitments, debt repayments in FY 2021/22 already consume up to 70% of the revenue targets, with little remaining for other obligations. Liquidity problems between March to June resulted in delayed Hunger Safety Net Programme (HSNP) payments, directly affecting the most vulnerable. As the most vulnerable are further left behind, and with an impending food and nutrition crisis, this is not setting the country on the path to economic recovery anytime soon.

With the onset of drought on top of the existing crises in Kenya’s ASAL counties, the ASAL Humanitarian Network (AHN) and partners (ACTED, Concern and Oxfam) have started early action responses, including cash transfers, complementing interventions by communities and counties. In an effort to scale up early action interventions, results from an AHN Drought Needs Assessment will become available by 31st of July, focusing on the ASAL counties most at risk, including: Baringo, Garissa, Isiolo, Mandera, Marsabit, Tana River, Samburu, Turkana, and Wajir. The needs assessment will provide a snapshot on how the drought situation is progressing and will inform immediate interventions, before the more in-depth results from the Long Rains Assessment will become available.

As food security is rapidly deteriorating and once again unveiling systemic inequality, assistance to mitigate the impacts and act before it is too late is lagging behind. The ASAL Humanitarian Network:

  • Calls upon the national and county governments to release available funding and to work in close cooperation with development and humanitarian partners.
  • Urges for mobilization of (no-regrets) anticipatory financing and early action to protect affected households from the deepening impact of two consecutive poor rain seasons, in de midst of a COVID-19 pandemic, and as households are still recovering from widespread desert locust infestations.
  • Recommends the adoption of Forecast Based Action that combines water and food security indicators, urges the Water and Sanitation Coordination Group (WESCORD) to prioritize the incorporation of a water severity index, which sets in prior to food insecurity in ASAL context
  • Supports enhanced coordination to monitor the context and to reinforce an inclusive response effort, including strong linkages between different ministries, integrating interventions across the development and humanitarian nexus and the reactivation of coordination at national, county and operational levels through County Steering Groups and sectoral working groups, including for cash, WASH, health and nutrition.
  • Calls for locally-led responses that are timely, and that sustains and reinforces existing community efforts.

For further information and requests, please contact:

Ahmed Ibrahim / ALDEF CEO and Convener of ASAL Humanitarian Network, ahmed.ibrahim@aldef.org